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These reports are unique, authoritative expert evaluations. Each report is produced by a committee of experts selected by the Academy to address a particular statement of task and is subject to a rigorous, independent peer review.

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Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Last 2,000 Years (2006)

In response to a request from Congress, this report assesses the state of scientific efforts to reconstruct surface temperature records for the Earth over approximately the last 2,000 years and the implications of these efforts for our understanding of global climate change. Because widespread, reliable temperature records are only available for the last 150 years or so, scientists estimate temperatures in the more distant past by analyzin... More >>

Report in Brief

Review of the Department of Energy's Genomics: GTL Program (2006)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes scientific and technological innovation to advance the national, economic, and energy security of the United States. Recognizing the potential of microorganisms to offer new energy alternatives and remediate environmental contamination, DOE initiated the Genomes to Life program, now called Genomics: GTL, in 2000. The program aims to develop a predictive understanding of microbial systems that can b... More >>

New Source Review for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (2006)

The Clean Air Act (CAA) establishes a pair of programs--together known as New Source Review (NSR)--that regulate large stationary sources of air pollution, such as factories and electricity-generating facilities. Under the NSR programs, permits are required for building new stationary sources that could emit more than a specified level of emissions, and permits are also required for any changes to existing major stationary sources that coul... More >>

Plans and Practices for Groundwater Protection at the Los Alamos National Laboratory: Interim Status Report (2006)

Discharges of wastes from activities associated with the federal government's Los Alamos site in northern New Mexico began during the Manhattan Project in 1943. Now designated the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the site is operated under contract by the Department of Energy (DOE). Through past and ongoing investigations, radioactive and chemical contaminants have been detected in parts of the complex system of groundwater beneath th... More >>

Overcoming Challenges to Develop Countermeasures Against Aerosolized Bioterrorism Agents: Appropriate Use of Animal Models (2006)

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) gives the highest priority to developing countermeasures against bioterrorism agents that are highly infective when dispersed in aerosol form. Developing drugs to prevent or treat illnesses caused by bioterrorism agents requires testing their effectiveness in animals since human clinical trials would be unethical. At the request of NIAID, the National Academies conducted a stud... More >>